Direction and Support

Excerpt from the IAEA Annual Report for 1994


Regular Budget

The General Conference appropriated an amount of $200 103 000 for the Agency's Regular Budget on the basis of an exchange rate of 12.70 Austrian Schillings to one United States dollar, of which $195 018 000 was related to Agency programmes. The latter amount was adjusted to $213 946 000 in accordance with the adjustment formula presented in the attachment to Resolution GC(XXXVII)/RES/610 in order to account for the average United Nations exchange rate of 11.41 Austrian Schillings to one US dollar which was actually experienced during the year. However, because of a shortfall in expected contributions, steps were taken to reduce the budget by 9.3% to $194 048 700.

The Regular Budget for 1994, at an exchange rate of 11.41 Austrian Schillings to one US dollar, amounted to $219 536 000, of which $210 863 000 was to be financed from contributions by Member States on the basis of the 1994 scale of assessment, $5 590 000 from income from reimbursable work for others and $3 083 000 from other miscellaneous income.


The actual expenditures for the Agency's Regular Budget in 1994 amounted to $197 252 145, of which $190 839 587 was related to the Agency's programmes. In addition, the authority to spend an amount of $13 468 800 was reserved for Deferred Programme Activities to be carried out in 1995 if arrears of contributions would be received in time. The unused budget from Agency programmes amounted to $9 637 613, whereas the total unused budget was $8 815 055 after taking into account reimbursable work for others.

Total 1993 and 1994 expenditures amounted to $13 967 199 from a total of $16 254 297 for the 1992 Deferred Programme Activities related to the Agency's budget. Total expenditures incurred in 1994 amounted to $13 216 058 from a total of $16 662 248 for the 1993 Deferred Programme Activities related to the Agency's budget.

Voluntary contributions

The target for voluntary contributions to the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund in 1994 was established at $58.5 million, of which $42.4 million was pledged by Member States.

Extrabudgetary contributions

A total of $55 888 877 in extrabudgetary funds was provided by Member States, the United Nations, other international organizations and other sources during 1994. Of this amount, $6 844 713 was in support of safeguards, $5 244 093 was for technical co-operation projects, $2 886 550 for projects in the field of food and agriculture, $2 584 103 for nuclear safety and $10 768 125 for the implementation of United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 on Iraq. In addition to $1 846 154 set aside for accrued end of service allowances, an amount of $19 088 727 (supplemented by the Agency's contribution of $1 486 828) was available for the ICTP, and $2 137 646 (supplemented by the Agency's contribution of $2 626 332) for IAEA-MEL. The remaining $6 334 920 was in support of various other projects implemented by the Agency.

Trust funds

In 1994, a total of $126 202 was provided by Member States for technical assistance and co-operation activities as funds-in-trust. Furthermore, a total of $1 247 559 was administered on behalf of research institutions and $2 400 000 for ITER.

Financial Regulations and Financial Rules

The Agency's Financial Regulations, which have governed the financial administration of the Agency's activities, included a number of provisions reflecting neither the practices of the Agency's organs nor the Agency's budget and financing structure. A comprehensive review of the Regulations and Rules was thus initiated in mid-1993, in accordance with an action plan and timetable determined by the Board of Governors. Following extensive consultations with the Board and Member States, the revised Financial Regulations, which represent a complete overhaul of the previous Regulations, were adopted by the Board in September 1994 and became operative on 1 January 1995. The Interim Financial Rules have also been reviewed in the light of the newly adopted Financial Regulations; the new Rules came into effect on the same date.


At the end of 1994 the number of members of the Secretariat was 2248 — 861 in the Professional and higher categories and 1387 in the General Service category. These figures represent: regular staff (1671), temporary assistance staff (148), extrabudgetary (326), cost-free experts (76) and consultants (27). Among the 622 staff members in posts subject to geographical distribution, 87 nationalities were represented.

The General Conference adopted resolutions GC(XXXVIII)/RES/12 and GC(XXXVIII)/RES/13 which request the Director General to intensify his efforts and take specific measures to increase the staff drawn from developing countries and the number of women in the Secretariat. A number of steps were taken internally as well as in respect of Member States to facilitate the implementation of these resolutions. In particular, the services of a consultant were used to carry out a qualitative assessment of a representative sample of applications received from people in developing countries. The report indicated that no cases of discrimination against an applicant from a developing country or a female applicant had been found. Also, a cost-free expert was provided by a Member State for a period of six months to develop an action plan to improve the representation of women in the Agency. A report was submitted in November.

At the end of 1994 the percentage of women among the Professional staff was 16.7%; at the same time developing countries provided 31.8% of the staff subject to geographical distribution. With funds from the deferred programmes, training continued through 1994 with the delivery of further courses on the essentials of management in which 60 middle level managers participated. Training in the analysis of programme performance (Programme Performance Assessment System) was completed for 97 project managers. Skills training in interviewing, presentation and non-technical writing was introduced and 165 staff members benefitted from these courses. In addition, approval was granted for external training in programme specific areas to 20 staff members. Induction Courses and Insight Series for orientation purposes were held for 217 staff members. Training provided in the above areas reached 22.2% of staff during 1994. In addition, more than 200 staff members participated in language training in the official languages as well as in German.

The personnel part of the new payroll/personnel system, developed by an outside company with financial support from Germany, became available.

Management services

A total of 12 projects aimed at promoting good management and cost effective working practices were completed during the year. In addition to management and efficiency reviews in various areas of the Secretariat, project support was provided for the introduction of new administrative systems and procedures, notably in the areas of procurement, home leave entitlement and information technology management.

Liability for nuclear damage

The Standing Committee on Liability for Nuclear Damage concentrated on the proposals for the revision of the Vienna Convention of 21 May 1963 on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and the establishment of a supplementary compensation system. The consideration of the two issues continued, for the time being, in an integrated manner with a view to finalizing the preparatory work in time to submit them to the same diplomatic conference. The proposals on international State liability and its relationship to the civil liability regime were not directly addressed but remained before the Committee for consideration in the context of the Vienna Convention revision.

In the absence of agreement on the basis of the initial proposals regarding a supplementary funding convention, i.e. the "levy" and "pool" drafts, the Standing Committee, in order to expedite negotiations, considered new approaches to the structure of compensation under both the revised Vienna Convention and a supplementary funding system. In particular, it was agreed to insert the installation State tier in the revised Vienna Convention, and on the basis of this, a new single draft convention on supplementary funding was prepared for further discussion. It is linked to the Vienna and Paris conventions and envisages an additional level of compensation provided by all States Parties collectively in accordance with an agreed formula (the "collective State contributions" draft). As the draft contains alternative formulations on some fundamental issues such as geographical scope, and a system of and criteria for contributions, including the status of States without nuclear installations in this regard, it was agreed to take decisions, within the mandate of the Committee, at its forthcoming session.

The Standing Committee also considered a new proposal for a convention on supplementary compensation for transboundary nuclear damage from a nuclear incident at a civil nuclear power plant (the "umbrella" draft). This draft convention sets out basic principles of nuclear liability in a manner allowing adherence to it regardless of participation in other international agreements on nuclear liability. The Standing Committee agreed to continue in-depth discussion of the "umbrella" draft, including its relationship to existing conventions.

Several Member States from Latin America stated that they were studying the creation of a regional mechanism for nuclear liability taking into account the characteristics of their nuclear sectors. In their opinion the formula for a worldwide supplementary funding system should be compatible with the regional approach.

During the consideration of the question of nuclear liability by the Board of Governors in June and the thirty-eighth regular session of the General Conference, the Standing Committee was urged to expedite general agreement and completion of the preparatory work so that the diplomatic conference could be convened at an early date. In the meantime, further adherences to the existing instruments on nuclear liability were welcomed.

Convention on Nuclear Safety

The Group of Experts on a Nuclear Safety Convention, set up by the Board of Governors in 1992, completed the task of finalizing a draft text of a convention in January 1994. The Board of Governors at its February session requested the Director General to convene a diplomatic conference in June 1994 for the purpose of adopting the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The four day Diplomatic Conference adopted the Convention on 17 June 1994 without a vote. The Convention was then opened for signature on 20 September 1994, in conjunction with the thirty eighth regular session of the General Conference. By the end of 1994, 54 States had signed the Convention and one had ratified it. It will enter into force on the 90th day after deposit of the 22nd instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, including the instruments of 17 States each having at least one nuclear installation which has achieved criticality in a reactor core.

The Convention provides that it shall apply to "nuclear installations", defined as "land-based civil nuclear power plants". The obligations of the Contracting Parties are based to a large extent on the principles contained in the Safety Fundamentals document The Safety of Nuclear Installations. They include, in particular, the obligation to establish and maintain a legislative and regulatory framework for nuclear installations and the obligation to implement a number of measures, based on general safety considerations, regarding, for example, the availability of financial and human resources, the assessment and verification of safety, quality assurance and emergency preparedness. Other obligations concern technical aspects of the safety of nuclear installations, including siting, design, construction and operation.

For the Agency, the most relevant feature is that the Convention provides for an obligation of the Contracting Parties to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention for review at meetings of the Contracting Parties: the Convention provides that after its entry into force the Contracting Parties shall hold, at regular intervals, meetings for the purpose of reviewing national reports to be submitted by each Contracting Party on the measures taken by it in fulfilling its obligations under the Convention. The Agency will provide the secretariat for these meetings. The Convention also provides that the Director General of the Agency shall be the Depositary of the Convention.

Status of conventions and agreements

During 1994, there was no change in the number of Parties to the Agreement on the Privileges and Immunities of the IAEA (reproduced in document INFCIRC/9/Rev.1). The number of Member States who have accepted the Agreement remains at 65.

The Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, which entered into force on 12 November 1977, now has 24 Parties as a result of accession or succession by four States.

In 1994, two States acceded to the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (reproduced in document INFCIRC/274/Rev.1), which entered into force on 8 February 1987. Thus, by the end of the year there were 52 Parties.

The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (reproduced in document INFCIRC/335), which entered into force on 27 October 1986, was ratified or acceded to by three States. The total number of Parties by the end of 1994 was 74.

The Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (reproduced in document INFCIRC/336), which entered into force on 26 February 1987, was ratified or acceded to by two States. There were 70 Parties by the end of the year.

The Joint Protocol Relating to the Application of the Vienna Convention and the Paris Convention (reproduced in document INFCIRC/402) entered into force on 27 April 1992. During 1994, 5 States acceded to or accepted the Protocol, bringing the number of States Party to 17.

The African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Energy (AFRA) (reproduced in document INFCIRC/377), which entered into force on 4 April 1990, was accepted by two States during 1994. By the end of the year 19 States had accepted the Agreement.

The Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (RCA) (reproduced in document INFCIRC/167/Add. 15), entered into force on 11 June 1992. By the end of the year 3 States had accepted the Agreement, bringing to 17 the total number of acceptances.

The Convention on Nuclear Safety (reproduced in document INFCIRC/449) was signed by 54 States and ratified by 1.



The most significant development during 1994 in the Agency's technical co-operation activities was the approval by the Board of Governors of the 1995–1996 Technical Co-operation Programme, including 11 new model projects. These additional model projects join the original group of 12 that began implementation in 1994 and continue the commitment to the model project concept in new areas of nuclear technology. The new model projects were formulated to address high priority national objectives and reflect substantial national commitment to achieving results.

In September, the Third Technical Co-operation Policy Review Seminar was held. The discussions concentrated on three priority topics: the establishment of action plans to develop radiation protection and waste management infrastructures for Member States; the introduction of medium term country plans to ensure that the Agency's technical co-operation activities are fully linked to a country's sectoral or national development objectives; and methods and means for ensuring that maximum impact occurs to beneficiaries from the Agency's technical co-operation projects. The event provided important guidance in the formulation of follow-up activities and strategies, which were later outlined at the November meeting of the Technical Assistance and Co-operation Committee.

In recent years, the emphasis in global technical co-operation has been on water resources, food security, health and nutrition, the environment and the alleviation of poverty. The Agency's technical co-operation programme for 1995–1996 reflects a clear orientation towards these priorities, as well as the Agency's efforts to create programme links with multilateral and bilateral development organizations, and with sources of supplemental financing such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development and the Global Environment Facility.

The dependence of countries of eastern Europe and the former USSR on WWER and RBMK reactors is considerable. In 1994, a principal aim of technical co-operation activities in Europe and the countries of the former USSR was the identification of design and operational shortcomings of these reactors and their safety significance and the assessment of the completeness and adequacy of the safety improvements proposed or being implemented. The results of these activities have played an important role in focusing national and international attention on the need to achieve and maintain high levels of nuclear safety, and have provided new guidance and assistance to national nuclear safety authorities.

Resources and Implementation

Total new resources available for technical co-operation totalled $52.8 million, a slight reduction from 1993. Funding was higher by 7% than in the previous year for assistance in-kind, funds from UNDP increased by 29%, and miscellaneous income rose by 192%, owing entirely to positive gains on exchange of currencies compared to last year's losses. The Technical Assistance and Co-operation Fund (TACF) increased by 2%, while extrabudgetary funding declined by 23% to the second lowest level in 12 years. The major source of technical co-operation funds continued to be the TACF with 84.7%, but the share of the $58 500 000 target actually pledged dropped to 72.5%, a significant decline from the 76.5% achieved in 1993.

The adjusted programme, which includes assistance brought forward, totalled $78 million at the end of the year. Overall implementation against this was 69.7%, the highest level ever achieved. As illustrated below, total new obligations climbed to over $54.3 million, an increase of almost $9 million over the previous year. During the last two years the volume of new obligations has increased by almost $20 million, while the rate of financial implementation has risen from 59% to almost 70%. The unobligated balance of the TACF, after rising significantly in 1992 and 1993, was reduced to $18.3 million in 1994. Further efforts in the coming two year cycle will be made to reduce this to about $15 million, which is the amount necessary to meet financial exigencies.

Programme delivery and support

During 1994, there were 1192 operational projects. This programme was comprised of 1114 projects continued from 1993 plus 9 newly approved core model projects for the second year of the biennial cycle, and 47 training courses, 5 footnote-a/ projects, 17 Reserve Fund projects and one UNDP project. During the year, 289 projects were completed and 20 projects were cancelled.

A record number of 3205 expert and lecturer assignments were carried out by 2022 individuals for a total of 1288 months. Fellowships, scientific visits and training courses provided 4316 months of training to 2785 persons. The total number of training courses was 127. This training programme included 18 interregional, 95 regional and 14 national courses.

Technical co-operation programme delivery

The technical officers in the Department of Research and Isotopes supported 780 projects and those in the Department of Nuclear Energy and Safety supported 366. A total of 1604 fellowship applications were evaluated, and Agency staff members undertook 583 assignments for a total in excess of 132 months. The volume of project actions requiring technical intervention is increasing and the Agency is taking steps to provide systematic support to the co-ordination function, including joint work planning and sectoral programming. This has become even more important in view of the 23 ongoing and new model projects planned by the end of the year.

Assistance to the different regions reflected shifts to Africa and Europe. Asia and the Pacific continued to receive the largest share, with 24.8%, but Africa again increased its share to 24.3%, the highest level yet achieved.

The largest share of disbursements in 1994 was for safety related activities comprising radioactive waste management, radiation protection and the safety of nuclear installations, which increased to 22.9% of total disbursements. The volume of disbursements for food and agriculture increased by over 30%, but the 22.4% share of total disbursements placed this traditionally important activity slightly behind safety. Physical and chemical sciences accounted for 17.3% of the total. Other significant programmes included human health with 13.1%, and industry and earth sciences with 12.1%.


The evaluation activities carried out in 1994 covered eight national and regional projects, through both desk and field evaluation exercises. These evaluations included major technical sectors, such as human health, industrial applications, design, production, calibration and maintenance of nuclear instruments, as well as the RAPAT/WAMAP programmes in four countries.

Several in-depth evaluations were conducted on: non-destructive testing projects in several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean; environmental monitoring in the Middle East; and the impact of nuclear related technologies in the industrial sector in the Asia and Pacific region. A major finding of the 1994 evaluation exercises was the need to improve national commitment so as to ensure the sustainability of the Agency's technical assistance.

Twelve country programme summaries were prepared in 1994. The routine monitoring activities of operational projects included follow-up of some 200 projects through the Interim Project Implementation Report (IPIR) system, which identified valuable information about the difficulties being encountered, thus enabling corrective actions. Additionally, 24 interregional and AFRA courses were monitored through follow-up questionnaires.


Public Information

Public and media interest in the Agency's activities remained at a high level throughout the year regarding safeguards inspections in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and that country's withdrawal from the Agency. Illicit trafficking in nuclear materials was a further subject prompting frequent dealings with the media. Non-proliferation overall was an item of growing importance.

The follow-up work and monitoring activities in Iraq under Security Council Resolution 687 attracted recurring attention, albeit at a lower level of intensity. A documentary film entitled Mission Iraq was completed, and was used by many television stations. A didactic film — on the transport of radioactive materials — was also completed.

Safety concerns and the Agency's involvement in safety related matters (visits to reactors, analyses, the nuclear safety convention, etc.) were also high on the public information agenda. Emphasis was additionally placed on the ongoing reorientation of the Agency's technical co-operation programme. This was reflected in publications covering technology transfer (especially health related) as well as radiation applications.

Under the enhanced public information programme, seminars on nuclear energy were held in Bulgaria, Egypt, Morocco and the Philippines.


Croatia, Lebanon and Lithuania joined INIS during 1994 (while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea is no longer a member). The number of participating Member States is therefore 88, together with 17 international organizations.

A total of 77 107 records of the published literature were added to the INIS database and announced in the abstracting journal INIS Atomindex, bringing the total number of records available in the database to 1 777 185.

New versions of the FIBRE software for input preparation were finalized. Version 2.1 was made available to all Member States who use FIBRE for input preparation to the database. The Developer's Edition of the software has been completed and can be used to prepare input to INIS-like databases.

The INIS database was sent on tape or cartridge to 21 INIS members. Through arrangements made by a number of Member States with database hosts, the INIS database is available on-line in many countries from various commercial and non-commercial sources. It also continues to be available on-line from the Agency's computer in Vienna, where it was used by external users for a total connect-time of about 230 hours in 1994.

The INIS Clearinghouse distributed the full text of non-conventional literature (reports, dissertations, etc.) on microfiche with a volume of about 432 000 microfiche, representing 23.5 million printed pages of documents. Twenty-nine INIS members have standing orders for the full microfiche collection. By the end of 1994, the number of documents available on microfiche was almost 292 000.

At the invitation of the Government of India, the 22nd Consultative Meeting of INIS Liaison Officers was held in New Delhi in April. The Liaison Officers discussed and made recommendations on:

An INIS Advisory Committee meeting held in Vienna discussed and approved a new statement defining the "mission" of the INIS system. This new mission foresees the provision of nuclear information services to the Agency's Member States based not only on products derived from a single bibliographic database, but also the provision of services through alternative mechanisms tapping into other sources of bibliographic data and related nuclear information. Within the framework of this new mission statement, the Advisory Committee made recommendations that will guide strategic developments for INIS in the next five years.

A very large project was executed during the year in an attempt to establish the nuclear information needs of users of the system throughout the world. Some 25 000 questionnaires were distributed in 87 Member States. In part with outside contractual assistance, the results of the User Needs Study were analysed and an evaluation report prepared.

With the participation of the national INIS centres of Australia, France, the Russian Federation and Spain, the Secretariat conducted a subject search study to ascertain how search points provided by the INIS records in the database are used for retrieving specific information according to subject relevance. The study analysed over 1000 search query formulations.

The feasibility study for the electronic storage of the full text of non-conventional literature was completed in 1994. Following the suggestions of the consultants that outlined requirements for a pilot study, the Secretariat sought bids from appropriate commercial enterprises; a selection has been made and plans are set for the implementation of the pilot project.


Library services

After a year of planning and preparation, the VICLION integrated library system became operational. The on-line catalogue was released in February with remote access from offices in the VIC following shortly thereafter. Throughout the year, a number of data cleanup and data transfer projects were undertaken. The acquisitions module was implemented to replace outdated mainframe software. In order to better serve the library users, small specialized collections were established throughout the VIC and reflected in the on-line catalogue. Numerous collections of information were made available via CD-ROM and a pilot CD-ROM network was implemented to explore the possibilities for decentralized access to these resources.

A cost–benefit review of the Library's exchange agreements was conducted. These agreements authorize exchange of Agency publications in return for receipt of valuable publications from the exchange partner organizations.

Central computer services

The major goal in 1994 for the central computer services was to complete the implementation of the Standard Technology Architecture (STA) five-year plan which was approved in 1991. The infrastructure to support STA was in operation in almost all of the Agency by the end of 1994.

Following the goal to upgrade departmental computing services by 1996 and thereby decrease the need for central mainframe computers, four major systems were moved to LAN based environments in 1994: the Library, Payroll, the Power Reactor Information System, and the Energy and Economic Database. Further LAN based systems were in development. Modern information technology is being used to enhance programme operations. For example, in 1994 the Advanced Incident Reporting System was developed; it includes full text and graphics and hypertext links to relevant incident reports.

Electronic mail (e-mail) was introduced as a service under STA in mid-1993. By the end of 1994 almost all the staff in the Agency had access to e-mail. E-mail was approved as an official communications medium and substantive communications are now handled through this medium according to usual Agency policy.

The Agency expanded its international networking services significantly in 1994. Several Agency information sources, such as vacancy notices, press releases, INIS and nuclear data databases, were made available to the international community via the Internet, through the "Gopher" service, and work is in progress to implement several World-Wide-Web services and electronic document distribution in 1995.

During 1994, the central computer services increased the Agency's role as provider of computer services to the VIC. The Agency resumed operation of UNIDO's mainframe computer services in early 1994 and continued to operate the central LAN servers for the United Nations Office at Vienna (UNOV) and the United Nations International Drug Control Programme (UNDCP).


Some two hundred titles and journal issues were prepared for press and published. In addition to those listed or mentioned in other parts of The Annual Report for 1994, four books were published in French, ten in Russian and nine in Spanish.

Of particular note amongst the books published in 1994 were:

Contracts with all agents and booksellers were reviewed and in almost all cases renewed to ensure uniformity and consistency with current Agency policy.


For 1994 the production figures were as follows:

IAEA 95 million page impressions
UN/UNIDO 65 million page impressions
Total 160 million page impressions.

For comparison, the total output in page impressions over the past three years has been:

1992 186 million page impressions
1993 163 million page impressions
1994 160 million page impressions.