International Atomic Energy Agency
(Unofficial electronic edition)
4 June 1996
FRENCH and RUSSIAN
Text of the Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit Declaration
Moscow, 19-20 April 1996
As requested by the Resident Representatives to the International Atomic Energy
Agency of France and the Russian Federation, the two States - Co-Chairmen of the summit
meeting held in Moscow from 19-20 April 1996, the text of the Moscow Nuclear Safety and
Security Summit Declaration is being circulated:
Moscow Nuclear Safety and Security Summit Declaration
(Moscow, 20 April 1996)
- The end of the cold war and the political and economic reforms in Russia have opened
a new era in our relationship and have provided the international community with real
possibilities for cooperation in the fields of nuclear safety and security. The Moscow meeting
is an important step in the realization of these objectives. We are determined, at this summit
and beyond, to work together to ensure the safety of nuclear power and to promote greater
security for nuclear materials.
- We are committed to give an absolute priority to safety in the use of nuclear energy. As
we approach the tenth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident, it is our shared objective that
such a catastrophe cannot reoccur.
We are ready to cooperate among ourselves so that the use of nuclear energy is conducted
all over the world consistently with fundamental principles of nuclear safety. Further, we are
committed to measures which will enable nuclear power, already a significant contributor to
electricity supply in those countries choosing to exploit it, to continue in the next century to
play an important role in meeting future world energy demand consistent with the goal of
sustainable development agreed at the Rio Conference in 1992.
We recognize the importance of openness and transparency to obtain public trust which is
a key factor for the use of nuclear energy.
- The security of all nuclear material is an essential part of the responsible and peaceful
use of nuclear energy. In particular, the safe management of fissile material, including
material resulting from the dismantling of nuclear weapons, is imperative, not least as a
safeguard against any risk of illicit trafficking in nuclear materials.
- In the spirit of the decisions adopted during the New-York Conference of May 1995 on
review and extension of the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including the Decision on
principles and objectives for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, we will increase our
cooperation in the field of nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament i.a. by promoting
universal adherence to the NPT, working vigorously to strengthen the International Atomic
Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system and through effective and responsible export
control measures. We are issuing a separate text on a Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban
Treaty (CTBT). We renew our commitment to the immediate commencement and early
conclusion of negotiations on a non-discriminatory and universally applicable convention
banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive
- Recognizing that the prime responsibility for nuclear safety rests with national
governments, it is of the first importance to continue to enhance international collaborative
efforts to promote a high level of nuclear safety worldwide.
Safety of Civilian Nuclear Reactors
- Nuclear safety has to prevail over all other considerations. We reaffirm our commitment
to the highest internationally recognized safety level for the siting, design, construction,
operation and regulation of nuclear power installations.
- The promotion of an effective nuclear safety culture in each country with nuclear
installations is essential to that end.
- Sustainable nuclear safety also requires a supportive economic and legal environment
whereby both operators and national regulatory bodies can fully assume their independent
- Nuclear safety can also be enhanced by greater international transparency in nuclear
power activities, in particular by means of peer reviews, and this should lead to existing
reactors which do not meet current safety requirements being brought to an acceptable level
of safety or ceasing operation.
- The adoption of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, which reaffirms these fundamental,
safety principles is a major accomplishment in this field. We urge all countries to sign this
Convention and to complete internal procedures to join so that the Convention can be brought
into force expeditiously certainly before the end of 1996.
- National efforts have been made in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe and the
Newly Independent States to improve nuclear safety levels, often in cooperation with
multilateral and bilateral programmes. In this regard, we acknowledge these important efforts
to upgrade reactor safety and improve safety culture, but note that further substantial progress
is still required. We reaffirm our commitment to cooperate fully for this purpose.
- An effective nuclear liability regime must assure adequate compensation to victims of,
and for damage caused by, nuclear accidents. In addition, to secure the degree of private
sector involvement needed to undertake vital safety improvements, the regime should at the
same time protect industrial suppliers from unwarranted legal action.
- The essential principles in this area are the exclusive and strict liability of the operator
of the nuclear installations and ensuring needed financial security for adequate compensation.
- It is essential that countries with nuclear installations that have not yet done so establish
an effective regime for liability for nuclear damage corresponding to these principles.
- It is important to work together on enhancing the international regime of liability for
nuclear damage with a view to ensuring that it will attract wide adherence and accommodate
any state which may wish to become a party. We encourage the experts to make further
progress to this end. In this connection, the reinforcement of regional cooperation is
Energy Sector Strategies in transition countries
- Efficient market-oriented strategies for energy sector reform are essential to promote
nuclear safety. This will generate adequate resources for investment in safety upgrades and
maintenance, and encourage energy conservation. All countries in transition should pursue
such market-oriented reforms and investment strategies based upon least cost planning, giving
due regard to nuclear safety and environmental criteria, and to energy efficiency and
- The International Financial Institutions have played a leading role in developing market-
oriented energy sector reforms and investment plans. Their continued involvement and
support is critical to ensure further progress.
Nuclear waste Management
- National authorities must ensure radioactive waste is managed safely and that provisions
are made for its proper handling, storage and ultimate disposal. These are essential elements
for any nuclear energy programme.
- The development of the Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management,
based on these principles, is of paramount importance. We call on all countries generating
nuclear waste with nuclear installations to participate actively in the preparation of this
Convention under the auspices of the I.A.E.A. and to encourage its effective finalization and
- We commit ourselves to ban dumping at sea of radioactive waste and encourage all
states to adhere at an earliest possible date to the 1993 amendment of the London Convention.
Nuclear Material Security
Programme for Preventing and Combatting illicit Trafficking in Nuclear Material.
- Illicit trafficking of nuclear material is a public safety and non-proliferation concern.
We recognized the importance of this issue at our meetings in Naples and Halifax. As risks
continue to exist, we have agreed on, and released, a programme for preventing and
combatting illicit trafficking in nuclear material to ensure increased cooperation among our
governments in all aspects of prevention, detection, exchange of information, investigation
and prosecution in cases of illicit nuclear trafficking.
We call on other governments to join us in implementing this programme.
Nuclear Material Accounting and Control and Physical Protection.
- We reaffirm the fundamental responsibility of nations to ensure the security of all
nuclear materials in their possession and the need to ensure that they are subject to effective
systems of nuclear material accounting & control and physical protection. These systems
should include regulations, licensing and inspections. We express our support for the
I.A.E.A. safeguards regime, which plays a critical role in providing assurance against the
diversion of nuclear material going undetected. We underline the need for the urgent
strengthening of I.A.E.A. capabilities to detect undeclared nuclear activities. We note that
these measures are also conducive to preventing illicit trafficking of nuclear material.
- We recognize the importance of continually improving systems and technologies for
controlling and protecting nuclear materials. We urge nations to cooperate bilaterally,
multilaterally and through the I.A.E.A. to ensure that the national systems for controlling
nuclear materials remain effective. We are encouraged by the wide array of cooperative
projects underway in this field under bilateral and multilateral auspices and pledge to sustain
and increase these efforts.
- We urge ratification by all states of the Convention on the Physical Protection of
Nuclear Material and encourage the application of the I.A.E.A. recommendations on the
Physical Protection of Nuclear Material.
- We pledge our support for efforts to ensure that all sensitive nuclear material (separated
plutonium and highly enriched uranium) designated as not intended for use for meeting
defence requirements is safely stored, protected and placed under I.A.E.A. safeguards (in the
Nuclear Weapon States, under the relevant voluntary offer I.A.E.A.-safeguards agreements) as
soon as it is practicable to do so.
Safe and effective Management of weapons fissile material designated as no longer
required for defence purposes.
- Major steps have been taken in recent years towards nuclear disarmament. This has
created substantial stocks of fissile material designated as no longer required for defence
purposes. It is vital, as mentioned above, that these stockpiles are safely managed and
eventually transformed into spent fuel or other forms equally unusable for nuclear weapons
and disposed of safely and permanently.
- The primary responsibility for the safe management of weapons fissile material rests
with the nuclear weapons states themselves, but other states and international organizations
are welcome to assist where desired.
- We welcome the steps that the United States and the Russian Federation have taken to
blend highly-enriched uranium (HEU) from dismantled nuclear weapons to low-enriched
uranium (LEU) for peaceful non-explosive purposes, and the cooperation programs of Canada,
France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and other
states with the Russian Federation for the safe storage, the peaceful uses of fissile material
released by the dismantlement of nuclear weapons, and their safe and secure transportation for
that purpose; we encourage other efforts along these lines.
- We are determined to identify appropriate strategies for the management of fissile
material designated as no longer required for defence purposes. Options include safe and
secure long-term storage, vitrification or other methods of permanent disposal, and conversion
into mixed-oxide fuel (MOX) for use in nuclear reactors. We have agreed to share relevant
experience and expertise to elaborate and implement these strategies. We welcome plans to
conduct small-scale technology demonstrations related to these options, including the
possibility of establishing pilot projects and plants. We shall convene an international
meeting of experts in order to examine available options and identify possible development of
international cooperation in the implementation of these national strategies, bearing in mind
technical, economic, non-proliferation, environmental and other relevant considerations. The
meeting will take place in France by the end of 1996.
- We recognize the importance of ensuring transparency in the management of highly
enriched uranium and plutonium designated as no longer required for defence purposes.
* * * *
A background document on "Nuclear Safety", "Nuclear Material Accounting, Control and
Physical Protection" and "Safe and effective management of weapons fissile material
designated as no longer required for defence purposes" is being released separately.